Battles Resistance Groups

Turkish War of Independence 02

British was furious and said the pashas in İstanbul to call back Mustafa Kemal immediatly. But pashas make excuses like ”Oh, he is just controlling the city, chill!”

First ignitions of uprising

Then, Mustafa Kemal go to Amasya and make a national call. He said things like ”Our countrys unity and peoples freedom is in danger.” ”Foreign control is unacceptable.” At this point, there was no return.

When pass to Erzurum, there was an arrest order for him and one of his friends, Rauf Bey. British order the Ferit Pasha to announce Mustafa Kemal as a rebel.

(Mustafa Kemal make some national or local calls but I won’t explain every one of them.)

Acceptance of Misak-ı Milliye

Then, council accept the Misak-ı Milliye by voting. That means goverment will fight for all of Anatolia, including İstanbul Strait, not being a puppet state etc. That was it for the British. They said to Greek that they can invade wherever they want. In Bursa, Greeks want to stain some of the religious figures. That led to a resistance by Çerkez Ethem Gang and Bursa natives.

Meanwhile, Kazım Karabekir defeat the Armenians in the South and İsmet Bey stop the Greek advance on İnönü, but after 1 week Turkish Army was defated after an attack lead by Refet Bey. It was clear that Turkish army was not ready for an offensive.

Greek advances

British said that they are neutral in this war and want to act as a mediator. Greek king didn’t want a peace and come to İzmir and give the great attack order on 10th of July, 1921. West Army, lead by İsmet Paşa, sufferd a heavy defeat.

Top General Mustafa Kemal

As a top general, Mustafa Kemal was assign. First things first, he ordered ”Tekalifi Milliye” It said that every person must give the army %20 of its weapons, %33 of its animals, %40 of its mechanichal stuff like car tire, bolt, gasoline etc., and many more things. Volunteers can give it more. At the end of the war, goverment will give them back to people. I want to tell a real story about this:

1 Turkish Lira

Officer wasn’t happy at all. He was writing stuff all day and he was tired.

-(Officer) Next!

-What do you have?

+Ökkeş Yılmaz. 3 car tires and 1 litres of gasoline.

-(Writing these) Next!

+Hasan Akoğlu. 2 pairs of leather shoes, 1 rifle and 100 Turkish liras.

– (Writing these) Next!

After that, a 7 year old child approached.

-Get the hell out of the line kid, this isn’t a playground, isn’t it?

Then, children said:

+ Mehmet Turan, 1 Turkish liras.

Even the cold and angry officer couldn’t resist. That kids wealth was 1 lira and even that couldn’t stop him from giving it all. Officer turned back, wipe his tears and said:

-I..I can’t take this! You are just a child kid.

+So? Even I had to do my responsibilites for our freedom!

Greek attack

On August 22, 1921 Greeks attack on Sakarya Rivers defense line and fought for 3 weeks. At first, Turks fall back. Cannon sounds were hearable from Ankara and traveling the council to Kayseri was suggested but Mustafa Kemals famous sentence improved armies morale:

” There is no such thing as a ”just line of defense” That line of defense is our whole country!”

On 12 of September, Greeks had to fall back to Eskişehir. France see this crushing defeat and worried they might be next so they sign the Ankara Treaty and exit the Anatolia.

Final attack

Mustafa Kemal wait for a year to wait supplies from foreign countries and Tekalif-i Milliye order. Then, he divide his army into two pieces. The attack that would end the Turkish War of Independence began on August 26, 1922. On just first 2 days, Greek Armys half of the soldiers were killed and other half was surrounded.

Surrounding operation led by Mustafa Kemal himself, began on August 30. It was a huge succes but a small group was still in İzmir. So Mustafa Kemal said:

” Armies! Your first goal is Mediterranean, advance! ”

Turkish cavalry forces pursuit Greek forces and on September 9, Nurettin Pasha entered İzmir. Greek forces left the Anatolia and Turkish War of Independence was over.

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