On 30 October 1918, Armistice of Mudros was signed between Ottoman Empire and Allies. Armistice of Mudros was very tough against Ottoman Empire. First of all, it wasn’t clear. ”Having right to take control of a state in a disorder.” Like, what disorder? Who will choose if its a disorder or not? What about time? Other major problem was the restriction of the army meaning that Allies don’t want a another war with Ottoman Empire. All this chaos led to Turkish War of Independence.
Landings in Anatolia
Taking advantage of weakend Ottoman Empire, Allies land soldiers to take some of the citys in the Anatolia. British land at Gallipoli (what a suprise…), Italians land along the Mediterranean coast, Greeks land at the city of İzmir and Italians, French and British land in diffrent parts of İstanbul.
In the southeast, French and U.K kick Ottomans ass in the deserts and Ottoman forces have been pushed back to his own territory. Most of the wise mans, engineers and many of the professors died in the Gallipoli Campaign which led to a economic and educational crisis.
Where is Mustafa Kemal?
Mustafa Kemal left the Lightning Army Group base near Adana and come to İstanbul to have some infos about countrys political, civilian and army status. He publish some newspaper saying things like uprising against Allies. He would often meet with his commander friends and discuss about the further actions.
People, including important persons like leaders and commanders, were divided into 3 ideology:
- We should accept British control.
- We should accept American control, since they are far-far away from us.
- We shouldn’t accept any control, we would be a indepent state. Either freedom or death!
Many of the coward leaders of the Ottoman Empire chose the first or second one, but most of the millitary high command and civilian people were against Allied control when they understand they weren’t actually looking for an treaty, but to take control %60 of their country.
Kuva-yi Milliye Guerillas
People start to uprise against Allied forces with whatever they could find. Sharp shovels, wood axes, broken rifles… These groups were around 10 – 20 men.
But they weren’t that good either. Some of them would force villagers to give them supplies and weapons, they were poorly trained, non-cooperative with the actual army etc. But most important thing is that they revolt against their own army when army want to hire and train them as a disiplined and organised soldier.
Leaving the İstanbul
Mustafa Kemal take permission from British and go to Anatolia with an English ship to suppress a revolt. Or actually, that was what British thought. Mustafa Kemals true intention was to ignite a revolution against Allies. He left the İstanbul because he couldn’t be able to ignite the revolution since Allies is in control of İstanbul. He land in Samsun with some of his friends and made some speeches like revolting against Allies, he send a warning telegraphy to İstanbul Goverment (some kind of puppet of Allies) and call the people to join his side. I must say that this was a local call, not some national one.
End of part 1